TB-500 (Thymosin Beta-4)
Updated: Apr 5, 2022
The Wound Healing Peptide
aids in the repair of muscle, bone, ligament, tendon and joint injuries
strong anti-inflammatory properties, decreases the amount of inflammatory cytokines
increases new blood cell formation, known as angiogenesis, around damaged tissues
enhances hair growth
cardiovascular and neuroprotective effects
improves collagen deposition, tissue healing and cell survival
upregulates actin which plays a crucial role in cell mobility, signaling between cells and muscle contraction
prevents formation of adhesions and fibrous bands in muscles, tendons, and ligaments
stretches connective tissue and helps maintain flexibility
anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation properties
promotes angiogenesis and wound healing
stem/progenitor cell differentiation
encourages cell migration and survival.
A subcutaneous injection is given between 4-8 mg bi-weekly for the first 4-6 weeks, after which a maintenance dose of 2-5 mg per week is given. TB-500 is safe and well-tolerated by animals and humans.
TB-500 or Thymosin beta-4 was isolated after the discovery of thymosins in 1960s. TB-500 is a natural peptide sequence found in many tissues, with intracellular concentrations of 0.5 mM. It consists of 43 amino acids.
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Mechanism of Action
TB-500 is a synthetic version of the endogenous protein Thymosin beta-4. It controls the upregulation of cell-building proteins. One example is the protein actin, which forms together with myosin as the contractal filaments in muscle and metabolism cells. By upregulating actin, TB-500 promotes cell growth, cell migration, healing and proliferation of cells. It also simulates the development of disease fighting T cells.
Surficial Wound Healing
A study conducted by Malinda et al. in 1999, studied the wound healing properties of TB-500, thymosin beta-4 and found that deep wounds contracted 11% more than the control, as well as increased collagen and angiogenesis in the wounds. Further reepthelialization was increased by 42% at 4 days and as much as 61% by day 7. Finally, they found that TB-500 stimulated keratinocyte migration. This data suggests TB-500 has significant wound healing properties.
Malinda KM, Sidhu GS, Mani H, Banaudha K, Maheshwari RK, Goldstein AL, Kleinman HK. Thymosin beta4 accelerates wound healing. J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Sep;113(3):364-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00708.x. PMID: 10469335.
Traumatic Brain Injury
A study by Xiong et al., 2012, investigated into the potential of TB-500, thymosin beta-4, as a potential treatment to traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI currently has no effective pharmacological treatments, as all Phase II/III clinical trials have failed. Thymosin beta4 (Tβ4) is the major G-actin-sequestering molecule in eukaryotic cells, it has properties including anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, promotion of angiogenesis and wound healing, stem/progenitor cell differentiation, and cell migration and survival. They found that when TB500 was given to patients within 6 hours of injury, doses 6 and 30 mg/kg, the cortical lesion volume and hippocampal cell loss were significantly reduced, while promoting improved functional recovery. Furthermore, they found that delayed treatment with TB-500 at 6 mg/kg (24+ post injury), the functional outcome greatly improved, despite no observed reduction in lesion volume.
Xiong, Ye et al. “Neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects of thymosin β4 treatment following experimental traumatic brain injury.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences vol. 1270 (2012): 51-8. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06683.x
TB-500, thymosin β4 (Tβ4), has been recognized by many studies to have healing effects on several organs. A study by Xu et al., 2013, investigated the role of Tβ4 in the repair process after ligament injury. Their goal was to determine whether or not TB-500 would improve and promote liagment repair following sustained injury. To determine this, they imposed injury to the medial collateral ligament (MCL) to the treatment and control group of rats. Healing tissues were evaluated various ways, including tranmission electron microscopy. They found that the treatment group exhibited more uniform and evenly spaced fiber bundles, and the diameter of collagen fibrils within granulation tissue were significantly increased. Whereas, the control fibers were inevenly spaced with smaller diameter collagen fibrils. Furthermore, the study found that the mechanical healing properties of the treated rats were significantly increased. The treated group had much better biomechanical properties. This research shows TB-500 to have great potential in liagment repair.
Xu B, Yang M, Li Z, Zhang Y, Jiang Z, Guan S, Jiang D. Thymosin β4 enhances the healing of medial collateral ligament injury in rat. Regul Pept. 2013 Jun 10;184:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2013.03.026. Epub 2013 Mar 21. PMID: 23523891.
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