The Studying Nootropic
In studies Aniracetam has been used at 1,500 mg per day split into 2 x 750 mg doses. Typically, dose 1 is given in the morning and dose 2 in the early afternoon.
Aniracetam has been shown to significantly improve brain function, especially after traumatic brain injury including stroke (ischemia).
Enhances your brain’s ability to repair damaged cell membranes.
Boosts neural signaling by reducing the desensitization of glutamate, and therefore increasing the effectiveness of glutamate, (AMPA) receptors in your brain.
Better focus and concentration
improves memory and recall. It releases 200 – 300% more acetylcholine in the brain.
Used as a study aid
increased auditory perception
increased visual activity
boost communication between left and right brain activities
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Aniracetam (1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a fat-soluble ampakine nootropic within the racetam-class of compounds. Aniracetam has gained attention due to it's strong potency, being up to 10-times more potent than the first racetam created, Piracetam.
Aniracetam was developed and patented in 1978 by Swiss-based pharmaceutical company F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG.
In Europe Aniracetam is sold as a prescription drug, in USA and Canada it is sold as a supplement. Nootropic users boast that Aniracetam use can be used to boost memory and learning.
Mechanism of Action
Aniracetam has been found to modulate AMPA receptors in the brain. The two main metabolites of aniracetam are N-anisoyl-GABA (about 70%) and 2-Pyrrolidinone and p-anisilic acid (20-30%). These metabolites act on the glutamate system in the brain. It reduces the desensitization of glutamate receptors. This causes glutamate to be more available for uptake in the brain. By utilizing more glutamate the brain shows better cognition and memory, in addition to neural protection and repair (even in the cases of brain injury).
Additional studies have shown that aniracetam affects the dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain, this leads to improved mood and sociability, and possibly causing to reduce anxiety symptoms.
Aniracetam is considered very safe and non-toxic. It is well-tolerated and safe.
Side effects are rare but can include anxiety, fatigue, headaches, nervousness and nausea. Headaches are often a symptom of a choline deficit in your brain and can be reversed by choline supplementation.
276 patients with cognitive disorders were given Aniracetam and observed for 6 months, with tests given at 3,6 and 12 months. Patients were found to experience heightened emotional states and improved motor function within 3 months. an overall boost of cognitive performance was experienced by 6 months. This improvement continued to be observed into the 12 month test. Furthermore, they found a positive effect on emotional stability in patients with dementia.
Koliaki C.C., Messini C., Tsolaki M. “Clinical Efficacy of Aniracetam, Either as Monotherapy or Combined with Cholinesterase Inhibitors, in Patients with Cognitive Impairment: A Comparative Open Study” CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Volume 18, Issue 4, pages 302–312, April 2012
Anti Depressant and Learning Enhancement
Nakamura et al., 2001, found that aniracetam could act as a potent anti-depressant treatment in the case of age-related cognitive decline, by stimulating the release of dopamine. In other study by Cumin et al., 1982, researchers found learning and memory enhancement associated with aniracetam use. They placed rats and mice through 6 different scenarios, including drug induced memory loss or electric shock avoidance. Regardless of the scenario, Aniracetam supplementation was shown to significantly improve cognitive functions.
Nakamura K, Tanaka Y. “Antidepressant-like effects of aniracetam in aged rats and its mode of action.” Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 2001 Nov;158(2):205-12.
Cumin R., Bandle E.F., Gamzu E., Haefely W.E. “Effects of the novel compound aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) upon impaired learning and memory in rodents.” Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 1982;78(2):104-11.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Aniracetam was found to have a positive effect on fetal alcohol syndrome. Wijayardhane et al., showed that aniracetam could be used to repair damage to synaptic transmission in the brain. The study exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to ethanol and a saccharin-like sweetener. Similar to babies born to alcoholic mothers, rat pups born to these female rats would be extremely cognitively impaired. To compare the effect of aniracetam to the placebo the rat pups born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome were treated with aniracetam at 18 and 27 days after birth. The results found that Aniracetam completely restored synaptic transmissions in their brains while reversing any cognitive deficits associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.
Wijayawardhane .1, Shonesy B.C., Vaglenova J., Vaithianathan T., Carpenter M., Breese C.R., Dityatev A., Suppiramaniam V. “Postnatal aniracetam treatment improves prenatal ethanol induced attenuation of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission.” Neurobiology of Disease 2007 Jun;26(3):696-706
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